Sea Technology

JAN 2019

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20 ST | January 2019 www.sea-technology.com second RCRV, which is expected to be delivered in late 2021. A new solicitation for the third RCRV awaits 2019 budgetary guidance. Conclusion NSF remains committed to advancing the frontiers of science and technological innovation as a continuing initiative. Balancing long-term investments with near- term imperatives is critical to adequately address current perceived threats, inform major challenges, impact so- ciety and inform future policy decisions. NSF will con- tinue to address this need through short-term programs such as rapid response research grants and active poli- cy engagement while also using the recommendations provided in "Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences" (Sea Technology, June 2015) as a long- term guide to ensure a strong ocean science enterprise through 2025. ST nomenon, with OCE now supporting eight sites and the network office. One of OCE's newest LTER sites established in 2016, the Northeast U.S. Shelf, enhances the OOI investment through utilization of the Coastal Pioneer Array to help understand and predict changes in planktonic food webs. Such efforts, along with other sustained observa- tions made across the 28 sites, serve the wider ecological community, providing publicly available data through the LTER Data Portal (portal.lternet.edu/nis/home.jsp). International Ocean Discovery Program The International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is celebrating its 15th year as the systematic method of ex- ploring the bottom of the ocean, discovering insights into the workings of our planet. Since its inception, the IODP has broadened the base of international participation and collaboration to more than 20 countries (iodp.org). The JOIDES Resolution's (JR) recent summer expedition to the Brothers submarine volcano in the southern part of the Kermadec Arc explored the magma-derived hy- drothermal system, including fluid-rock interactions, the distribution of metals/metalloids and their pathway to the seafloor, and the nature of microbial life in this extreme environment. The JR is anticipated to begin operations in the waters around Antarctica in 2019 and the south Atlantic in 2020 and 2021 after spending recent years operating in the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. Academic Research Fleet The U.S. Academic Research Fleet (ARF) included 18 vessels and one deep-ocean research submersible (DSV ALVIN) in calendar year 2018, ranging in size, endur- ance and capabilities. The ARF enables NSF and other federally and state-funded scientists to conduct research in coastal (including the Great Lakes) and open-ocean waters. Coordination of ARF vessels occurs through the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), which enables scheduling of all scientific sea- going missions for the ARF in collaboration with the U.S. funding agencies. NSF is the cognizant oversight agency for the ARF. NSF received congressional appropriation in 2018 for partial funding for three regional-class research vessels (RCRVs). Oregon State University will operate the first RCRV, the RV Taani, which is expected to be delivered in early 2021. The East Coast Oceanographic Consortium, led by the University of Rhode Island, will operate the The RV Sikuliaq (left). Review&Forecast Innovating Now to Meet Tomorrow's Complex Maritime Challenges By Admiral Karl L. Schultz Commandant U.S. Coast Guard T oday, emerging threats to the inter- national rules-based order of the maritime environment are nei- ther regionally focused nor locally contain- able. Illicit networks, natural disasters, great power competition and hostile nation-states and adversaries who wish to do us harm do not respect borders. As challenges to our nation's security, prosperity and global influence grow more complex, the need for a ready, relevant and responsive United States Coast Guard has never been greater. While we respond to disasters, rescue mariners in distress, conduct law enforcement and regulate our waterways, we also operate 24/7/365 to keep our nation secure. The Coast Guard, while the smallest of the five U.S. Armed Forces, is a global force with unique authorities and capabilities. As the only military service located in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), we are an instrument of national power both at home and abroad. We provide options and solutions across the full spec- trum of operations, from security cooperation up to armed conflict. We shape how countries conduct mar- itime law enforcement and establish governance. Our cooperative initiatives foster a more secure maritime en-

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