Sea Technology

DEC 2017

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Page 31 of 52 December 2017 / st 31 come attractive to birds. This research could shed light on whether what hap- pens at the bottom of the food web ripples upward. The study involved counting the number of infected and parasite-free amphipods in fertilized and unfertil- ized plots each summer from 2009 to 2014. They discovered that the prevalence of the parasite increased to 13 times higher in nutrient-enriched marshes, while the biomass density of infected amphipods was on average 11 times higher. This work may provide insights be- tween human activities and disease emergence. Nutrient pollution could enhance the populations of parasites that affect humans, thereby promoting disease. Ceres Has Possible Remnants of Ancient Ocean Minerals containing water are wide- spread on Ceres, suggesting the dwarf planet may have had a global ocean in the past. In one study, NASA's Dawn mission team found Ceres's crust is a mixture of ice, salts and hydrated ma- terials that were subjected to past and possibly recent geologic activity, and this crust represents most of that an- cient ocean. The second study builds off the first and suggests there is a softer, easily deformable layer beneath Ceres's rigid surface crust, which could be the signature of residual liquid left over from the ocean. The team thinks most of Ceres's an- cient ocean is now frozen and bound up in the crust, remaining in the form of ice, clathrate hydrates and salts. But if there is residual liquid underneath, that ocean is not yet entirely frozen. $1.2 Million to Develop Hadal Water Column Profiler The deepest zone in the ocean, the hadal zone, is deeper than 3.75 mi. (6,000 m). Very little is known about the circulation, mixing, chemical properties and biological communi- ties in the water of these deep-ocean trenches. This dearth of knowledge stems from a lack of suitable instrumentation with which to make observations. With a $1.2 million award from the W.M. Keck Foundation, a team from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, along with industry partners, is on track to build a hadal water column profiler (HWCP). It will, for the first time: en- able high-quality physical, chemical and biological sampling of the water column from the sea surface to the seafloor at 11 km (36,000 ft.) depth; withstand hundreds of cycles up and down in the water column; and pro- vide observations needed to illuminate important problems, such as how the deep-ocean trenches are ventilated. Research possible thanks to HWCP will create new understanding of the deep ocean's impact on the climate and biological communities. Seismic Research System For Canary Archipelago The underwater volcano Tagoro in the Canary archipelago is being moni- tored closely by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography, together with both Ca- narian Universities. Submerged in Oc- tober 2016, the monitoring system by RTsys will be resurfaced at the end of winter season in 2017. RTsys designed a system combining three geophones and a hydrophone. The device mea- sures temperature, salinity and other environmental parameters. ST

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