Sea Technology

NOV 2017

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Page 40 of 53 November 2017 / st 39 Ship Exhaust Can Lead To Stronger Storms Thunderstorms directly above two of the world's busiest shipping lanes are significantly more powerful than storms in areas of the ocean where ships don't travel, according to new research. A new study mapping light- ning around the globe finds lightning strokes occur nearly twice as often directly above heavily trafficked ship- ping lanes in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea than they do in areas of the ocean adjacent to shipping lanes that have similar climates. The difference in lightning activity can't be explained by changes in the weather. Aerosol particles emitted in ship exhaust are changing how storm clouds form over the ocean. The new study is the first to show ship exhaust can alter thunderstorm in- tensity. The researchers conclude that particles from ship exhaust make cloud droplets smaller, lifting them higher in the atmosphere. This creates more ice particles and leads to more lightning. The results provide some of the first evidence that humans are changing cloud formation on a nearly continual basis, rather than after a specific inci- dent like a wildfire. Cloud formation can affect rainfall patterns and alter cli- mate by changing how much sunlight clouds reflect to space. EXPORTS to Study Ocean Carbon Process To learn more about the ocean's car- bon cycle, a team of investigators led by UC Santa Barbara oceanographer David Siegel is set to implement a new NASA project: the EXport Processes in the Ocean from RemoTe Sensing (EX- PORTS) Science Plan. EXPORTS will help scientists develop a comprehen- sive understanding of how the oceans process carbon and mitigate CO 2 ac- cumulation in the atmosphere. Large scientific teams will under- take two field expeditions, the first set for summer 2018 in the northeast Pa- cific Ocean. A dozen proposals have been funded to examine the biological ocean pathways that impact the car- bon cycle. Scientists hope to improve predictive abilities relating to the size distribution of sinking carbon and the roles that microscopic marine organ- isms such as phytoplankton and zoo- plankton play in their dynamics. Phytoplankton get their energy from CO 2 through photosynthesis, forming biomass that eventually makes up ag- gregates that sink toward the ocean floor. This process of transferring CO 2 to the deep ocean where it can be se- questered for hundreds to thousands of years is called the biological pump. French Oceanographic Lab Relies on Biochem Sensors For more than 15 years, Argo floats have been taking CTD profiles, which are sent to land via satellite for a da- tabase. Inspired by the Argo network, the team of the Oceanographic Labo- ratory of Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV) wanted to add biogeochemical sensors on floats, according to nke Instrumen- tation. In addition to the conventional sensors of pressure, temperature and salinity, a series of optical sensors has been installed on a new generation of floats. There are also two nutrients sensors and a sensor for measuring dis- solved oxygen. The LOV is currently working on an intelligent system for ice detection. In the future, they would like to deploy floats in the Arctic, which would need to be able to avoid icebergs. Winner of AZFP Early-Career Award Announced Dr. Susannah Buchan has won ASL's 2017 AZFP early-career scientist award. Buchan will receive a free mul- tifrequency AZFP for a three-month deployment to conduct research on the spatial distribution of prey and ba- leen whale species off Isla ChaƱaral in northern Chile. This area, within the Humboldt Current System (HCS), is one of the most productive marine environments on the planet and sustains the highest fishery catches in the world. Due to the unique biological characteristics of this area, the Isla ChaƱaral Marine Re- serve (ICMR) was developed to protect a small part of the marine ecosystem of the coastal islands of the HCS. Buchan has proposed a spatial boat- based survey consisting of continuous profiling transects. These transects will give insights into the distribution of various zooplankton and small pelagic fish species and will be coupled with boat-based baleen whale observations. Grant Funds Marine- Derived Biomed Research The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (HBOI) Foundation supported the project "Applying New Technolo- gies to Transform Marine Natural Prod- ucts Discovery" by the Marine Bio- medical and Biotechnology Research Program at FAU Harbor Branch with a grant of $320,000. This program has been involved in the search for potential new medicines from marine organisms for nearly 20 years. This repository contains more than 30,000 frozen macro-organism specimens and 16,500 microbial iso- lates. This project focused on using unique assets of HBOI (the macro and micro-organism collections) and the new high-content imaging (HCI) sys- tem to revolutionize visualization and testing for active materials. Funds were requested to implement the HCI sys- tem for cancer drug discovery, antibi- otic discovery and sustainable supply of marine-derived compounds. ST ocean research

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