Sea Technology

JAN 2019

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www.sea-technology.com January 2019 | ST 19 organic matter impact- ing the region (https:// bit.ly/2QAkvCB). Coastlines and People Rapidly growing populations in coastal areas are experienc- ing emerging threats from environmental phenomena and nat- ural hazards. NSF is bringing together vari- ous stakeholders to determine research priorities needed to advance understanding of how coastal populations and natural processes respond to such variability in an emerging initiative called Coastlines and People (CoPe, coastlinesandpeople.org). This initiative is a joint effort of the NSF Directorate of Geosciences in collaboration with the Directorates for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, Engineering, Education and Human Resources, and Biological Sciences. More than 400 scientists, stakeholders and commu- nity leaders participated in a series of workshops in Sep- tember 2018. The goals of the workshops focused on identifying fundamental research gaps needed to address environmental challenges, better inform decision mak- ing, and increase broader impacts and engagement. Ocean Observations Initiative Since 2016, NSF's Ocean Observations Initiative (OOI) has become an integrated infrastructure program consisting of a net- work of more than 800 individual sen- sors distributed across four global arrays, two coastal and a cabled array (oceanobserva tories.org). Continu- ing the program's suc- cess, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- tution (WHOI) is now heading up the project management office of OOI 2.0, in addition to serving as the science lead for the OOI Global Arrays and the Pioneer Coastal Array. The University of Washington, Or- egon State University and Rutgers University will contin- ue supporting the Cabled Array, the Endurance Coastal Array and the network cyberinfrastructure, respectively. Long-Term Ecological Research First established in 1980, NSF is approaching the 40- year anniversary of the Long-Term Ecological Research Program (LTER, lternet.edu). OCE began supporting the LTER program in 1998 with the Plum Island Ecosystems, and it has since expanded. Currently, research programs are located at 28 LTER sites across the globe to support ecological discovery on long-term and large-scale phe- Review&Forecast Balancing Near-Term Imperatives with Long-Term Investments By Jessica F. McGrath Policy Advisor Danielle Dodge Knauss Fellow Terrence Quinn Director Division of Ocean Sciences U.S. National Science Foundation T he U.S. National Science Founda- tion's (NSF) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) supports research, in- frastructure and edu- cation over different time scales to advance understanding of all aspects of the glob- al oceans, including their interactions with people and the Earth system. These activities provide knowledge of the funda- mental ocean system that is critical to addressing many of our nation's most pressing challenges involving Earth processes. With an annual budget of more than $300 million (fis- cal year 2018), OCE works with the ocean sciences ac- ademic community to direct funding toward advancing the frontiers of knowledge, developing the next gener- ation of researchers, and enhancing the public's under- standing of ocean sciences. OCE represents this commu- nity in the federal context, coordinates with interagency and international partners on science and technological innovation, manages infrastructure, and participates in policy development through national and international forums. Rapid Response Research NSF utilizes Rapid Response Research Proposals (RAPIDs) to quickly address the needs of the research community in response to unexpected natural or anthro- pogenic disasters. RAPIDs can be requested when there is a severe ur- gency regarding availability of, or access to, data, facili- ties or specialized equipment, including quick response research projects (https://bit.ly/2iYtv92). RAPIDs also provide insight into longer-term patterns. A RAPID awarded after Hurricane Matthew (2016) con- tributed toward identification of long-term hurricane im- pacts on the Carolina coast. Scientists were able to inves- tigate how two decades of hurricanes have affected North Carolina estuaries. This combination of quick-response research coupled with long-term observations uncovered trends in nutrient flow, phytoplankton populations and

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