Sea Technology

FEB 2017

The industry's recognized authority for design, engineering and application of equipment and services in the global ocean community

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Dr. Maureen Y. Lichtveld, Professor and Chair, Freeport McMoRan Chair of Environmental Policy, Tulane University www.sea-technology.com February 2017 / st 7 editorial SEA TECHNOLOGY® I N C L U D I N G U N D E RS EA TEC H N O L O G Y The Industry's Recognized Authority for Design, Engineering and Application of Equipment and Services in the Global Ocean Community Charles H. Bussmann Founder and Publisher 1924-1999 publisher C. Amos Bussmann managing editor Aileen Torres-Bennett assistant editor Christopher Johnson production manager Russell S. Conward assistant design/ Joshua Ortega website manager advertising Susan M. Ingle Owen service manager ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES: HEADQUARTERS C. Amos Bussmann 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1010 Arlington, VA 22209 Tel: (703) 524-3136 • FAX: (703) 841-0852 e-mail: seatechads@sea-technology.com NORTH AMERICA, EAST COAST Clive Bullard Bullard Communications 107 Lane Gate Road Cold Spring, NY 10516 Tel: (845) 231-0846 • FAX: (845) 265-9695 e-mail: cbullards@cs.com NORTH AMERICA, WEST COAST John Sabo Barbara Sabo Gregory Sabo John Sabo Associates 447 Herondo St. #305 Hermosa Beach, CA 90254 Tel: (310) 374-2301 e-mail: bsabo@jsaboassoc.com EUROPE John Gold John F. Gold & Associates "Highview" 18a Aultone Way Sutton, Surrey, SM1 3LE, England Phone/FAX Nat'l: 020-8641-7717 Int'l: +44-20-8641-7717 e-mail: johnfgold@gmail.com Sea Technology back issues available on microform. Contact: NA Publishing, Inc. P.O. Box 998, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-0998 1-800-420-6272 COMPASS PUBLICATIONS, INC. 1600 Wilson Blvd., Suite 1010 Arlington, VA 22209-2510 Tel: (703) 524-3136 FAX: (703) 841-0852 oceanbiz@sea-technology.com www.sea-technology.com publishers of: Sea Technology Commercial Fisheries News Fish Farming News Commercial Marine Directory Fish Farmers Phone Book/Directory Sea Technology Buyers Guide/Directory Sea Tech e-News Celebrating more than 53 years of serving the global ocean community - Since 1963 - Environment, Community Health After Disasters T he health of the ecosystem and that of communities, especially those living in disaster- prone areas such as coastlines, are inextricably linked; yet, in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters, efforts to assess and investments to restore local ecosystems and efforts focused on human health are often disconnected. Disasters, both natural and technologi- cal, are an illustrative challenge for both "systems" that demonstrate the urgency to join forces because of the adverse effects on the environment and communities alike. Unlike technological disasters, the more visible human impact of natural disasters, e.g., hurricanes, elicits compassion and immediate response, resulting in first aid, shelter and evacuation assistance. However, attention to the ecosystem consequences is, in the case of natural disasters, delayed. In contrast, technological disasters, e.g., oil spills not accompanied by easily notice- able immediate adverse human health impacts, tend to lead to addressing the ecosystem impact. For example, within 2.5 years post-Deepwater Horizon (DWH), approximately 4.1 sq. km of Louisiana's wetlands were lost at an erosion rate of 1.54 m per year greater than that of reference (unoiled) islands. In response to this finding and to fisheries damage, unprecedented resources targeted local ecosystem restoration and research. From a human health perspective, environmental epidemiological studies examined the impact of chemical and nonchemical stressors after the 2010 DWH oil spill. The Na- tional Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) spearheaded the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study (GuLF STUDY), examining a prospective cohort of adults (32,608) who participated in oil spill response and cleanup work, or who were trained but not hired, to determine both short- and long-term health effects. Early assessments focused on respira- tory effects and mental health service utilization among participants. Four research consortia were funded by NIEHS as academic-community partnerships to identify potential health effects from the DWH oil spill and examine factors that contrib- ute to individual and community resilience. For example, among the research consortia, the Gulf Resilience on Women's Health (GROWH), www.gulfcoastenvironmentalhealth. com, conducted exposure assessments in more than 1,600 pregnant and reproductive-age women. Using locally derived risk assessment data, the GROWH team concluded that seafood from the Gulf of Mexico is safe to eat, while one species of imported seafood is contaminated at levels of potential public health concern. As an example of a nonchemi- cal stressor, financial loss was reported by the largest cohort of GROWH pregnant and reproductive-age women as the most significant negative effect of the DWH oil spill. Unlike ecosystem studies that can commence immediately after a disaster, the delay (of- ten months to years) in examining the human health consequences of such events confronts environmental public health scientists with a wide array of challenges, from study design to community trust. Specifically, the failure to invest in establishing baseline measures of exposure prior to and in the immediate aftermath of large chemical releases inhibits effec- tive ascertainment of the relationship between exposure to the contaminants of concern and potential adverse health outcomes. Beyond hampering community protective actions, this inability results in a failure to address community concerns and consequently leads to community distrust. Environmental monitoring devices, especially those available for general public use, can play a key role in early detection and promote risk communication. These kits use smartphone applications and include air and water monitoring. While communities are concerned about the impact on the environment, e.g., on fish- eries following the DWH spill, they are ultimately more fearful about the health conse- quences, especially for children. Investing in transdisciplinary research examining eco- system and human health impact in an integrated fashion will transform the challenges facing scientists into limitless opportunities to answer persistent questions. Science can then inform evidence-based policies and enable sustainable ecosystem and human health protection. ST

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