Sea Technology

FEB 2017

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Page 39 of 72 February 2017 / st 39 rivers. Some lakes are very shallow and, most of the time, are covered by clouds. The KdUINO would be a suitable instrument to perform spatiotemporal studies of the lakes in Ontario. The idea for the medium to long term is to encour- age volunteers from schools and neighborhoods around the lakes to measure and send data to research centers as part of a citizen science project. We did some preliminary tests with KdUINOs where we compared K d between Ramsey Lake (46.47° N, 80.95° W) and Lake Laurentian (46.44° N, 80.96° W). Ramsey Lake has depths up to 100 m, a diverse population of fish and normal pH for the boreal region of Canada. Lake Laurentian is very close to Ramsey Lake and is in a conservation area; it is much shallower (10 m) and has extensive wetlands as- sociated with it; therefore, the water is less transparent and is brown. KdUINO was deployed through fall freeze and left in place until spring melt through winter 2015, with atmo- spheric temperatures down to -20° C during the winter, and it worked properly under these freezing weather conditions. Our preliminary tests concluded that Ramsey Lake was found to have a K d about six times lower than Lake Lau- rentian, indicating, as expected, that Ramsey Lake is much more transparent than Lake Laurentian. We did a similar experiment in some lakes in the Pyre- nees, Spain, in winter 2015. Although the Pyrenees is not as cold as Canada, the atmospheric temperature in the studied areas is between -15˚ C and 2˚ C. In this case, the operation of the KdUINO was also satisfactory, and we obtained a first estimation of K d of the lakes. In Santos Bay, Mexico, during January and February 2015, the goal was to help scientists compare three different zones within the bay: a somewhat eutrophic area (an inter- nal eddy system, entrained waters); an intermediate zone; and a more open ocean site (closer to the nearshore current zone). The measurements were combined with other values from commercial instruments, such as CTD, and plankton net trawls were involved. The bad weather conditions made it difficult to take measurements with any instrument. How- ever, again, the KdUINO fulfilled its purpose, and we were able to deliver the data to the scientists. In Antarctica, taking advantage of the annual research campaigns of the Hesperides vessel, a volunteer, who was a technician of the ship, made measurements using the KdUINO at 60˚ S and 61˚ S. The temperature of the water/ air of the sampling points was 1.5° C and -2° C. K d values obtained are within the expected values in this region. Conclusion The KdUINO is a low-cost buoy that is easy to build and manipulate and enables estimation of the diffuse attenua- tion coefficient for extended periods of time. The KdUINO design is straightforward and modular, so it can be easily modified to suit the weather conditions and requirements of a study. Being a DIY instrument, its cost is more than 10 times cheaper than other conventional instruments. We have used the KdUINO in coastal areas and regions where there are many clouds, and there is difficulty estimat- ing K d using remote sensing techniques. We also tested it in areas of extreme weather conditions, such as Antarctica and Canada. The test results are very promising and encourage us to use the KdUINO in high-latitude areas to improve our knowledge of those water ecosystems. Acknowledgments The research described in this article is supported by the Citclops European project (FP7-ENV-308469). We thank Amy Henson, from Science North, for her dedication and effort in the organization and performance of the field cam- paign in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. We also thank Alberto Hernandez and Marta Umbert, from CSIC, for their data acquisition in the Pyrenees and Antarctica. ST Raul Bardaji is involved in international projects re- lated to developing autonomous observation plat- forms. He specializes in DIY technology and data analysis tools. He holds a B.S. and M.S. in telecom- munications engineering from La Salle, Ramon Llull University. Dr. Mairi Best is an expert in ocean observing and research infrastructures. She helped plan the VENUS and NEPTUNE (Ocean Networks Canada) ocean observatories when she was a professor at McGill University and went on to build NEPTUNE and the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water- column Observatory (EMSO) as part of their execu- tive teams. Dr. Jaume Piera's research interests are in information technologies applied to marine biology, particularly bio-optics. He holds a B.S. in biology from the Uni- versity of Barcelona, a B.S. in electronic engineering from the Technical University of Catalonia and a Ph.D. in environmental science from the University of Girona, Spain. Never lose sight of what you need. • Easily mark or relocate anything in the water • Assortment of off-the-shelf pingers • Capability to develop specialty products | 949-727-9399 AN RJE Pinger is your insurance policy

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