Sea Technology

FEB 2017

The industry's recognized authority for design, engineering and application of equipment and services in the global ocean community

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38 st / February 2017 www.sea-technology.com narrow strip near the equator, the ITCZ or inter- tropical convergence zone, and two wider strips in the middle latitudes associated with the passage of storms. Clouds form in abundance around latitudes 60° North and South, where the air rises as part of the flow of atmospheric circulation. This fact makes it difficult to use remote sensing satellite images for short-time-scale studies in many regions of the world as there are not usually enough images with- out clouds during the period of the survey. The resolution of most satellites is on the order of hundreds of square meters, which does not allow for correct sea surface measurements within the first 100 m from the coast because those measurements cover parts of land, which invalidate the sea surface data. Coastal areas are, however, of greatest interest for measurement of K d , given that they have higher physical process variability, driving more biological changes. Thus, it appears that the best way to measure K d in many areas of the planet is by in-situ measure- ments. The biggest problem with in-situ measure- ments is their high cost. Oceanographic instruments are usually very expensive, not to mention the cost of maintenance and transportation (via boat) to the study area. Thus, easy-to-use, low-cost buoys such as KdUINO offer a viable alternative. Testing KdUINO in Extreme Environments We tested the KdUINO buoy throughout 2014 to 2016 in various scenarios: in lakes and the ocean, in places with subtropical to temperate climates (Spain and Mexico), and in higher-latitude/cold areas (Canada and Antarctica). The coastline of Ontario, Canada, has more than 8,000 km that includes the Great Lakes, estuaries, and islands. The province has more than 250,000 lakes and 100,000 km of NASA Study A recent NASA study revealed that clouds cover near- ly 70 percent of the Earth. The study produced a map that shows the distribution of clouds on Earth using aggregate satellite data between June 2002 and April 2015. The con- clusion is that clouds dominate our planet: over the oceans, less than 10 percent is cloudless, and over Earth, 30 percent is cloudless. Three regions are more likely to be cloudy: a (Top) KdUINOs have mea- sured the diffuse attenuation coefficient in parts of Ontario. The ambient temperature dur- ing the measurement period went down to -20˚ C. (Bottom) Compari- son of the diffuse attenuation coef- ficient in two zones of the Pyrenees, where volunteers deployed KdUINOs.

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