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www.sea-technology.com February 2017 / st 31 including profiling floats, drifters, surface buoys, gliders and powered underwater vehicles. Some achieve a comprehen- sive view using a large number of platforms that drift with the ocean currents. The Argo profiling array is a good exam- ple of such a system. It monitors the ocean's physical char- acteristics, such as temperature and salinity from the surface to a depth of 2,000 m during a series of drifting vertical profiles. With about 4,000 drifting, profiling floats distrib- uted across the oceans, the global coverage of observations is very good. Another alternative is to have platforms that can be guided to make observations in areas of particular interest. For example, gliders have been used to monitor the ocean conditions under hurricanes and are monitoring sea ice in the Arctic. These can be piloted from shore and thus do not require the investment of ship time for operations once in position. There are still challenges in using floats and gliders due to their limited space for sensors and limited battery power for supporting sensors, navigation and com- munication. Such limitations of potentially ubiquitous plat- forms have now put additional emphasis on creating new sensors that can support the widespread observations of the ocean environment. Sensing the Oceans of Tomorrow The ocean observation community recognized the need for sensors that are innovative with reduced power require- ments, reduced cost and substantially improved ease of use, including interoperability across platforms. The European Commission issued solicitations for "innovative multifunc- tional sensors for in-situ monitoring of marine environment and related maritime activities." The calls address "an urgent need to improve the in-situ component of the ocean observ- ing systems to achieve an appropriate and comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the marine environment at different geographic, temporal scales and the monitoring of marine and maritime activities to ensure their sustainable development." In response to the needs for improved in-situ observa- tions, the challenges to be addressed and sensor characteris- tics desired are: cost-effective sensors suitable for large-scale production, taking advantage of new-generation technolo- gies, for example, in the fields of miniaturization, com- munication, positioning systems and disposable technolo- The TriOS MatrixFlu fluorescence sensor. NEW class of ROV Propulsion COPENHAGEN SUBSEA A/S email@example.com • www.copenhagensubsea.com Powerful and silent subsea thrusters from Copenhagen Subsea A/S have been developed with reliability as the highest design priority. The ROV thrusters are responsive, powerful and easy to integrate – and will provide vehicles with a unique combination of silent power and high maneuverability.